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Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments.
Animals, Antiviral Agents/pharmacology, Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use, Arenaviridae Infections/drug therapy, Arenaviridae Infections/physiopathology, Arenavirus/drug effects, Arenavirus/pathogenicity, Cricetinae, Disease Models, Animal, Guinea Pigs, Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/drug therapy, Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/physiopathology, Humans, Mice
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