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Plastid genome characterisation in Brassica and Brassicaceae using a new set of nine SSRs.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
We report a new set of nine primer pairs specifically developed for amplification of Brassica plastid SSR markers. The wide utility of these markers is demonstrated for haplotype identification and detection of polymorphism in B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa and in related genera Arabidopsis, Camelina, Raphanus and Sinapis. Eleven gene regions (ndhB-rps7 spacer, rbcL-accD spacer, rpl16 intron, rps16 intron, atpB-rbcL spacer, trnE-trnT spacer, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, trnM-atpE spacer, trnR-rpoC2 spacer, ycf3-psaA spacer) were sequenced from a range of Brassica and related genera for SSR detection and primer design. Other sequences were obtained from GenBank/EMBL. Eight out of nine selected SSR loci showed polymorphism when amplified using the new primers and a combined analysis detected variation within and between Brassica species, with the number of alleles detected per locus ranging from 5 (loci MF-6, MF-1) to 11 (locus MF-7). The combined SSR data were used in a neighbour-joining analysis (SMM, D (DM) distances) to group the samples based on the presence and absence of alleles. The analysis was generally able to separate plastid types into taxon-specific groups. Multi-allelic haplotypes were plotted onto the neighbour joining tree. A total number of 28 haplotypes were detected and these differentiated 22 of the 41 accessions screened from all other accessions. None of these haplotypes was shared by more than one species and some were not characteristic of their predicted type. We interpret our results with respect to taxon differentiation, hybridisation and introgression patterns relating to the 'Triangle of U'.
Base Sequence, Brassicaceae/genetics, Cluster Analysis, Computational Biology, DNA Primers, Genome, Plant/genetics, Haplotypes/genetics, Minisatellite Repeats/genetics, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Plastids/genetics, Polymorphism, Genetic, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Species Specificity
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