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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) modulates innate immune responses induced by endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria
Journal of Endotoxin Research
Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review
Discovered in the early 1960s as a T-cell cytokine, MIF has emerged to be an important mediator of the innate immune system. MIF was identified recently to be released by a vast array of cells, including monocytes/macrophages, T-cells, B-cells, endocrine cells and epithelial cells in response to infection and stress. Bacteria, microbial toxins and cytokines have been shown to be powerful inducers of MIF secretion by macrophages. MIF stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells and functions to counterbalance the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids. Like TNF and IL-1, MIF plays an important role in host responses to infection. Recombinant MIF was found to exacerbate lethal endotoxemia or bacterial sepsis when co-injected with LPS or Escherichia coli in mice. Conversely, MIF knockout mice or mice treated with anti-MIF antibodies were protected from shock induced by LPS, staphylococcal exotoxins or bacterial peritonitis, even when anti-MIF therapy was started after the onset of infection. Given the central role played by MIF in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses, pharmacological modulation of MIF production or neutralization of MIF activity could have broad clinical applications and may offer new treatment options for the management of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.
Animals Cytokines/analysis/immunology Disease Models, Animal Endotoxemia/immunology/prevention & control Endotoxins/*pharmacology Escherichia coli Infections/immunology Glucocorticoids/physiology Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/*immunology/metabolism Immunity, Natural Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/*physiology Mice Mice, Knockout Peritonitis/immunology/prevention & control Shock, Septic/immunology/prevention & control
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