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Sandwich enzyme immunoassay using three monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
Purified monoclonal antibodies (Mab) produced by 3 hybridomas and reacting with 3 different epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used in a solid phase enzyme immunoassay. Two Mabs were physically adsorbed to polystyrene balls and the third Mab was coupled to alkaline phosphatase using the bifunctional reagent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate. During a first incubation, CEA from heat-extracted serum samples was immunoadsorbed to the antibody coated balls. After washing of the balls, bound CEA was detected by a second incubation with the enzyme coupled Mab. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.6 ng per ml of serum. A total of 196 serum samples from patients with various types of carcinoma, with liver cirrhosis, or from healthy blood donors with or without smoking habits, were tested. The results obtained with the monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (M-EIA) were compared with those obtained with perchloric acid extracts of the same serum samples tested by an inhibition radioimmunoassay using conventional goat anti-CEA antiserum. There was an excellent correlation between the two assays. In particular, the new M-EIA gave good results for the detection of tumor recurrences in the follow-up of colon carcinoma patients. However, despite the use of exclusively monoclonal antibodies the new assay detected a similar percentage of slightly elevated CEA values as the conventional assay in patients with non-malignant disease, suggesting that the CEA associated with non-malignant diseases is immunologically identical to the CEA released by colon carcinoma.
Antibodies, Monoclonal/diagnostic use, Carcinoembryonic Antigen/analysis, Carcinoembryonic Antigen/immunology, Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis, Humans, Hybridomas, Immunoenzyme Techniques, Radioimmunoassay
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