Article: article from journal or magazin.
Single-step extraction of fluconazole from plasma by ultra-filtration for the measurement of its free concentration by high performance liquid chromatography.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the reference method for measuring concentrations of antimicrobials in blood. This technique requires careful sample preparation. Protocols using organic solvents and/or solid extraction phases are time consuming and entail several manipulations, which can lead to partial loss of the determined compound and increased analytical variability. Moreover, to obtain sufficient material for analysis, at least 1 ml of plasma is required. This constraint makes it difficult to determine drug levels when blood sample volumes are limited. However, drugs with low plasma-protein binding can be reliably extracted from plasma by ultra-filtration with a minimal loss due to the protein-bound fraction. This study validated a single-step ultra-filtration method for extracting fluconazole (FLC), a first-line antifungal agent with a weak plasma-protein binding, from plasma to determine its concentration by HPLC. Spiked FLC standards and unknowns were prepared in human and rat plasma. Samples (240 microl) were transferred into disposable microtube filtration units containing cellulose or polysulfone filters with a 5 kDa cut-off. After centrifugation for 60 min at 15000g, FLC concentrations were measured by direct injection of the filtrate into the HPLC. Using cellulose filters, low molecular weight proteins were eluted early in the chromatogram and well separated from FLC that eluted at 8.40 min as a sharp single peak. In contrast, with polysulfone filters several additional peaks interfering with the FLC peak were observed. Moreover, the FLC recovery using cellulose filters compared to polysulfone filters was higher and had a better reproducibility. Cellulose filters were therefore used for the subsequent validation procedure. The quantification limit was 0.195 mgl(-1). Standard curves with a quadratic regression coefficient > or = 0.9999 were obtained in the concentration range of 0.195-100 mgl(-1). The inter and intra-run accuracies and precisions over the clinically relevant concentration range, 1.875-60 mgl(-1), fell well within the +/-15% variation recommended by the current guidelines for the validation of analytical methods. Furthermore, no analytical interference was observed with commonly used antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals and immunosuppressive agents. Ultra-filtration of plasma with cellulose filters permits the extraction of FLC from small volumes (240 microl). The determination of FLC concentrations by HPLC after this single-step procedure is selective, precise and accurate.
Animals, Antifungal Agents/blood, Cellulose, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Fluconazole/blood, Humans, Polymers, Rats, Reference Standards, Reproducibility of Results, Sulfones, Ultrafiltration
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