Article: article from journal or magazin.
Microglial cells induce cytotoxic effects toward colon carcinoma cells: measurement of tumor cytotoxicity with a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase assay
International Journal of Cancer
PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Activated macrophages have been shown to exert cytostatic and cytotoxic effects toward tumor cells via nitric oxide (NO) release. In the CNS, microglial cells are considered to be the main resident population of immune effector cells. In this study, cytotoxic activity of N11, an immortalized murine microglial cell line, toward rat progressive DHD/PROb and regressive DHD/REGb colon carcinoma cells was examined in parallel with NO production. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a novel method, the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) assay, based on the fact that DHD tumor cells expressed high levels of gamma-GTP activity, while no gamma-GTP activity was found in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Results showed that activation of N11 cells by interferon-gamma plus either lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced high amounts of NO release and cytotoxic effects toward DHD/PROb as well as DHD/REGb cells. NO release by activated N11 cells was augmented by addition of tumor cell-conditioned medium. Both NO release by N11 cells and cytotoxicity were blocked by addition of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), an inhibitor of NO synthase, suggesting that cytotoxicity was mediated by N11-derived NO. However, in the presence of L-NMA an increased production of interleukin-6 was also observed. In conclusion, in opposition to information obtained with brain-derived endothelial cells, brain-derived microglial cells did not differentiate between progressive and regressive clones of colon carcinoma cells. Our results point to a specific role for both endothelial and microglial cell types in the context of brain metastasis. Microglial cells can be cytotoxic for tumor cells, and this cytotoxicity is mediated by NO
Animals/Biological Factors/pharmacology/secretion/Biological Markers/Bone Marrow Cells/Brain Neoplasms/secondary/Carcinoma/Pathology/Colonic Neoplasms/Culture Media,Conditioned/Cytotoxicity,Immunologic/Interferon-gamma,Recombinant/L Cells (Cell Line)/Lipopolysaccharides/Macrophages/physiology/Mice/Microglia/drug effects/immunology/Neoplasm Proteins/analysis/antagonists & inhibitors/Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis/Nitric Oxide Synthase/Rats/Rats,Inbred Lew/Recombinant Fusion Proteins/Tumor Markers,Biological/Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/gamma-Glutamyltransferase/omega-N-Methylarginine
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