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Genomic Study of RNA Polymerase II and III SNAP(c)-Bound Promoters Reveals a Gene Transcribed by Both Enzymes and a Broad Use of Common Activators.
SNAP(c) is one of a few basal transcription factors used by both RNA polymerase (pol) II and pol III. To define the set of active SNAP(c)-dependent promoters in human cells, we have localized genome-wide four SNAP(c) subunits, GTF2B (TFIIB), BRF2, pol II, and pol III. Among some seventy loci occupied by SNAP(c) and other factors, including pol II snRNA genes, pol III genes with type 3 promoters, and a few un-annotated loci, most are primarily occupied by either pol II and GTF2B, or pol III and BRF2. A notable exception is the RPPH1 gene, which is occupied by significant amounts of both polymerases. We show that the large majority of SNAP(c)-dependent promoters recruit POU2F1 and/or ZNF143 on their enhancer region, and a subset also recruits GABP, a factor newly implicated in SNAP(c)-dependent transcription. These activators associate with pol II and III promoters in G1 slightly before the polymerase, and ZNF143 is required for efficient transcription initiation complex assembly. The results characterize a set of genes with unique properties and establish that polymerase specificity is not absolute in vivo.
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