Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Secondary Cancer Risk for Stage I Seminoma Patients - a Comparison of Adjuvant Treatment Versus Surveillance
Title of the conference
European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress on Integrating Basic and Translational Science, Surgery, Radiotherapy, Medical oncology, Advocacy and Care
Stockholm, Sweden, September 23-27, 2011
European Journal of Cancer
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Background: Post-surgical management of stage I seminoma includes: surveillance with repeated CT-scans and treatment reserved for those who relapse, or adjuvant treatment with either immediate radiation therapy (RT) or carboplatin. The cancer specific survival is close to 100%. Cure without long-term sequelae of treatment is the aim. Our goal is to estimate the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancers (SC) death from for patients undergoing S, adjuvant RT or adjuvant carboplatin (AC).Materials and Methods: We measured organ doses from CT scans (3 phases each one) of a seminoma patient who was part of the active surveillance strategy and from a man undergoing adjuvant RT 20-Gy and a 30-Gy salvage RT treatment to the para-aortic area using helical Intensity Modulated RT (Tomotherapy®) with accurate delineation of organs at risk and a CTV to PTV expansion of 1 cm. Effective doses to organs in mSv were estimated according to the tissue-weighting factors recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 (Ann ICRP 2007). We estimated SC incidence and mortality for a 10,000 people population based on the excess absolute risk model from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII (Health Risk of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, NCR, The National Academies Press Washington, DC, 2006) assuming a seminoma diagnosis at age 30, a total life expectancy of 80 years.Results: The nominal risk for a fatal secondary cancers was calculated 1.5% for 15 abdominal CT scans, 14.8% for adjuvant RT (20 Gy paraaortic field) and 22.2% for salvage RT (30 Gy). The calculation assumed that the risk of relapse on surveillance and adjuvant AC was 15% and 4% respectively and that all patients were salvaged at relapse with RT. n CT abdomen/Pelvis = secondary cancer % RT Dose and % receiving treatment = secondary cancer % Total secondary cancer risk in % Active surveillance 15 = 1.5% 30 Gy in 15% of pts = 3.3% 4.8 Adjuvant carboplatin 7 = 0.7% 30 Gy in 4% of pts = 0.88% 1.58 Adjuvant radiotherapy 7 = 0.7% 20 Gy in 100% of pts = 14.8% 15.5Conclusions: These data suggest that: 1) Adjuvant radiotherapy is harmful and should not anymore be regarded as a standard option for seminoma stage I. 2) AC seems to be an option to reduce radiation induced cancers. Limitations: the study does not consider secondary cancers due to chemotherapy with AC (unknown). The use of BEIR VII for risk modeling with higher doses of RT needs to be validated.
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