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Oxidation and ubiquitination in neurodegeneration.
Experimental Biology and Medicine
It is widely accepted that protein oxidation is involved in a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Especially during aging, a reduction in anti-oxidant defence mechanisms leads to an increased formation of free radical oxygen species and consequently results in a damage of proteins, including mitochondrial and synaptic ones. Even those proteins involved in repair and protein clearance via the ubiquitin proteasome and lysosomal system are subject to damage and show a reduced function. Here, we will discuss a variety of mechanisms and provide examples where cognition is affected and where repair mechanisms are no longer sufficient to compensate for a dysfunction of damaged proteins or even may become toxic. Next to physiological deficits, an accumulation of deficient proteins in aggresomes may occur and result in a formation of pathological hallmark structures typical for aging and disease. A major challenge is how to prevent aberrant oxidation, given that oxidation plays an essential role in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly interesting are the possibilities to reduce the formation of radical oxygen species leading to a dysfunction of protein repair and protein clearance, or to a formation of toxic byproducts accelerating neurodegeneration.
Alzheimer's disease, oxidation, mitochondria, neurodegeneration, tau protein, ubiquitination
Web of science
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