Combining niche modelling and landscape genetics to study local adaptation: A novel approach illustrated using alpine plants

Détails

ID Serval
serval:BIB_B24A008BCB47
Type
Article: article d'un périodique ou d'un magazine.
Collection
Publications
Titre
Combining niche modelling and landscape genetics to study local adaptation: A novel approach illustrated using alpine plants
Périodique
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics
Auteur(s)
Rolland J., Lavergne S., Manel S.
ISSN
1433-8319
Statut éditorial
Publié
Date de publication
2015
Volume
17
Numéro
6
Pages
491-499
Langue
anglais
Résumé
Understanding the factors that shape adaptive genetic variation across species niches has become of paramount importance in evolutionary ecology, especially to understand how adaptation to changing climate affects the geographic range of species. The distribution of adaptive alleles in the ecological niche is determined by the emergence of novel mutations, their fitness consequences and gene flow that connects populations across species niches. Striking demographical differences and source sink dynamics of populations between the centre and the margin of the niche can play a major role in the emergence and spread of adaptive alleles. Although some theoretical predictions have long been proposed, the origin and distribution of adaptive alleles within species niches remain untested.
In this paper, we propose and discuss a novel empirical approach that combines landscape genetics with species niche modelling, to test whether alleles that confer local adaptation are more likely to occur in either marginal or central populations of species niches. We illustrate this new approach by using a published data set of 21 alpine plant species genotyped with a total of 2483 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), distributed over more than 1733 sampling sites across the Alps. Based on the assumption that alleles that were statistically associated with environmental variables were adaptive, we found that adaptive alleles in the margin of a species niche were also present in the niche centre, which suggests that adaptation originates in the niche centre.
These findings corroborate models of species range evolution, in which the centre of the niche contributes to the emergence of novel adaptive alleles, which diffuse towards niche margins and facilitate niche and range expansion through subsequent local adaptation. Although these results need to be confirmed via fitness measurements in natural populations and functionally characterised genetic sequences, this study provides a first step towards understanding how adaptive genetic variation emerges and shapes species niches and geographic ranges along environmental gradients.
Mots-clé
Niche modelling, Niche margin, Adaptive allele, Genome scan, Population genomics
Web of science
Création de la notice
07/01/2016 15:48
Dernière modification de la notice
03/03/2018 20:38
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