Article: article from journal or magazin.
Analysis of bioavailable arsenic in rice with whole cell living bioreporter bacteria.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A multiwell plate bioassay was developed using genetically modified bacteria (bioreporter cells) to detect inorganic arsenic extracted from rice. The bacterial cells expressed luciferase upon exposure to arsenite, the activity of which was detected by measurement of cellular bioluminescence. The bioreporter cells detected arsenic in all rice varieties tested, with averages of 0.02-0.15 microg of arsenite equivalent per gram of dry weight and a method detection limit of 6 ng of arsenite per gram of dry rice. This amounted to between approximately 20 and 90% of the total As content reported by chemical methods for the same sample and suggested that a major proportion of arsenic in rice is in the inorganic form. Calibrations of the bioassay with pure inorganic and organic arsenic forms showed that the bacterial cells react to arsenite with highest affinity, followed by arsenate (with 25% response relative to an equivalent arsenite concentration) and trimethylarsine oxide (at 10% relative response). A method for biocompatible arsenic extraction was elaborated, which most optimally consisted of (i) grinding rice to powder, (ii) mixing with an aqueous solution containing pancreatic enzymes, (iii) mechanical shearing, (iv) extraction in mild acid conditions and moderate heat, and (v) centrifugation and pH neutralization. Detection of mainly inorganic arsenic by the bacterial cells may have important advantages for toxicity assessment of rice consumption and would form a good complement to total chemical arsenic determination.
Arsenic/analysis, Biological Assay/methods, Biological Availability, Escherichia coli/genetics, Genetic Engineering, Luciferases/genetics, Luminescence, Oryza sativa/chemistry, Seeds/chemistry
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