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Free-living energy expenditure measured by two independent techniques in pregnant and nonpregnant Gambian women.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
1 Pt 1
Free-living energy expenditure (EE) was assessed in 37 young pregnant Gambian women at the 12th (n = 11, 53.5 +/- 1.7 kg), 24th (n = 14, 54.7 +/- 2.1 kg), and 36th (n = 12, 65.0 +/- 2.6 kg) wk of pregnancy and was compared with nonpregnant nonlactating (NPNL) control women (n = 12, 50.3 +/- 1.6 kg). The following two methods were used to assess EE: 1) the heart rate (HR) method using individual regression lines (HR vs EE) established at different activity levels in a respiration chamber and 2) the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method in a subgroup of 25 pregnant and 7 control women. With the HR method the EE during the agricultural rainy season was found to be 2,408 +/- 87, 2,293 +/- 122, and 2,782 +/- 130 kcal/day at 12, 24, and 36 wk of gestation and were not significantly different from the control group (2,502 +/- 133 kcal/day). These findings were confirmed by the 2H2(18)O measurements, which failed to show any effect of pregnancy on EE. Expressed per unit body weight, the free-living EE was found to be lower (P less than 0.01 with 2H2(18)O method) at 36 wk of gestation than in the NPNL group. It is concluded that, in these Gambian women, energy-sparing mechanisms that contribute to meet the additional energy stress of gestation are operating during pregnancy (e.g., diminished spontaneous physical activity).
Adolescent, Adult, Body Composition, Body Height, Body Mass Index, Body Water/metabolism, Body Weight, Energy Metabolism, Female, Gambia, Heart Rate, Humans, Pregnancy/metabolism, Regression Analysis
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