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Osteoradionecrosis: an update.
Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is the most serious and severe side effect of combined treatment of head and neck tumors. A new theory for the pathogenesis of ORN has been proposed relating it to a fibro-atrophic mechanism including free radical formation, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, microvascular thrombosis leading to bone and tissue necrosis. Risk factors mainly include radiation related risk factors, surgery and, tobacco and alcohol abuse. Removing of diseased teeth after and even probably after radiotherapy is generally considered the main risk factor in ORN. Conversely, steroid use before or after radiation may have a protective effect related to the inhibition of the initial inflammatory phase of ORN. Prevention of ORN is still based on the preventive extractions of decayed or periodontally compromised teeth before radiotherapy. Based on the current understanding of ORN pathophysiology, new preventive and therapeutic protocols have been suggested for mild to moderate stages. Free tissue surgical transfers is the treatment of choice of severe, extensive and long established ORN.
Osteoradionecrosis, Hyperbaric-Oxygen, Management, Jaws, Therapy, Pentoxifylline, Radionecrosis, Trial, Head
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