Article: article from journal or magazin.
Therapeutic drug monitoring in cancer - Are we missing a trick?
European Journal of Cancer
Publication types: Journal Article Publication Status: ppublish. pdf type: Position Paper
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be defined as the measurement of drug in biological samples to individualise treatment by adapting drug dose to improve efficacy and/or reduce toxicity. The cytotoxic drugs are characterised by steep dose-response relationships and narrow therapeutic windows. Inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is often substantial. There are, however, a multitude of reasons why TDM has never been fully implemented in daily oncology practice. These include difficulties in establishing appropriate concentration target, common use of combination chemotherapies and the paucity of published data from pharmacological trials. The situation is different with targeted therapies. The large interindividual PK variability is influenced by the pharmacogenetic background of the patient (e.g. cytochrome P450 and ABC transporters polymorphisms), patient characteristics such as adherence to treatment and environmental factors (drug-drug interactions). Retrospective studies have shown that targeted drug exposure correlates with treatment response in various cancers. Evidence for imatinib currently exists, others are emerging for compounds including nilotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, sorafenib and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Applications for TDM during oral targeted therapies may best be reserved for particular situations including lack of therapeutic response, severe or unexpected toxicities, anticipated drug-drug interactions and concerns over adherence treatment. There are still few data with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in favour of TDM approaches, even if data showed encouraging results with rituximab and cetuximab. TDM of mAbs is not yet supported by scientific evidence. Considerable effort should be made for targeted therapies to better define concentration-effect relationships and to perform comparative randomised trials of classic dosing versus pharmacokinetically-guided adaptive dosing.
Chemotherapy, Cytotoxics, Monoclonal antibodies, Oncology, Pharmacokinetics, Target concentration, Targeted therapies, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Variability
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