Article: article from journal or magazin.
Molecular pathways: emerging pathways mediating growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumors progressing in an irradiated microenvironment.
Clinical Cancer Research
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPublication Status: ppublish
Radiotherapy is a well-established therapeutic modality in oncology. It provides survival benefits in several different cancer types. However, cancers relapsing after radiotherapy often develop into more aggressive conditions that are difficult to treat and are associated with poor prognosis. Cumulative experimental evidence indicates that the irradiated tumor bed contributes to such aggressive behavior. The involved mechanisms have for long remained elusive. Recent progress in the field revealed previously unrecognized cellular and molecular events promoting growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumors progressing in an irradiated microenvironment. Cellular mechanisms include inhibition of sprouting angiogenesis, formation of hypoxia, activation and differentiation of stromal cells, and recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells with vasculogenic and prometastatic activities. Identified pathways include TGF-β/ALK5, CXCL12/CXCR4, KITL/KIT, and CYR61/αVβ5 integrin. The availability of pharmacologic inhibitors impinging on these pathways opens novel opportunities for translational and clinical studies. These experimental results and ongoing work highlight the importance of the irradiated microenvironment in modulating the tumor response to radiotherapy and open new opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with cancer who relapse after radiotherapy. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in the field and their translational and therapeutic implications to human cancer treatment.
Web of science
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