Article: article from journal or magazin.
Tissue-specific and ubiquitous factors binding next to the glucocorticoid receptor modulate transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter
Journal of Virology
Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't --- Old month value: Jun
Steroid hormones complexed with their receptors play an essential role in the regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transcription. However, the need for additional tissue-specific regulatory factors is suggested by the lack of virus expression in liver, in which glucocorticoid receptors are highly abundant, and by the tissue-specific transcription of reporter genes linked to an MMTV long terminal repeat in transgenic mice. In this study, we characterized two distal-region regulatory elements, DRa and DRc, which, together with the distal glucocorticoid receptor binding site (DRb), increased transcription from the MMTV promoter in permissive cells. This was demonstrated by transfection of these sequences (DRa, DRb, and DRc) in different combinations with the natural MMTV promoter in mouse fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells, followed by quantitative S1 nuclease mapping of the transcripts. We further showed by DNase I footprinting, methylation interference, and gel retardation assays with various nuclear extracts from permissive or nonpermissive tissues and cell lines that the factors binding to the DRa site are distinct and tissue-specific whereas those binding to DRc are ubiquitous.
Animals Base Sequence Cells, Cultured DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism Gene Expression Regulation, Viral Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse/*genetics Methylation Mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Molecular Sequence Data *Promoter Regions (Genetics) Protein Binding Receptors, Glucocorticoid/*metabolism *Transcription, Genetic
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