Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Integrative and systemic approaches for evaluating PPARβ/δ (PPARD) function.
Nuclear Receptor Signaling
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation, development, metabolism and also tumorigenesis. Three PPAR isotypes (α, β/δ and γ) have been identified, among which PPARβ/δ is the most difficult to functionally examine due to its tissue-specific diversity in cell fate determination, energy metabolism and housekeeping activities. PPARβ/δ acts both in a ligand-dependent and -independent manner. The specific type of regulation, activation or repression, is determined by many factors, among which the type of ligand, the presence/absence of PPARβ/δ-interacting corepressor or coactivator complexes and PPARβ/δ protein post-translational modifications play major roles. Recently, new global approaches to the study of nuclear receptors have made it possible to evaluate their molecular activity in a more systemic fashion, rather than deeply digging into a single pathway/function. This systemic approach is ideally suited for studying PPARβ/δ, due to its ubiquitous expression in various organs and its overlapping and tissue-specific transcriptomic signatures. The aim of the present review is to present in detail the diversity of PPARβ/δ function, focusing on the different information gained at the systemic level, and describing the global and unbiased approaches that combine a systems view with molecular understanding.
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