Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
The 2013 Arvid Wretlind lecture: evolving concepts in parenteral nutrition.
Publication types: Journal Article Publication Status: ppublish Document Type: Review PDF: Review
Fifty years after the clinical introduction of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) the Arvid Wretlind lecture is an opportunity to critically analyse the evolution and changes that have marked its development and clinical use. The standard crystalline amino acid solutions, while devoid of side effects, remain incomplete regarding their composition (e.g. glutamine). Lipid emulsions have evolved tremendously and are now included in bi- and tri-compartmental feeding bags enabling a true "total" PN provided daily micronutrients are prescribed. The question of exact individual energy, macro- and micro-nutrient requirements is still unsolved. Many complications attributed to TPN are in fact the consequence of under- or over-feeding: the historical hyperalimentation concept is the main cause, along with the use of fixed weight based predictive equations (incorrect in 70% of the critically ill patients). In the late 80's many complications (hyperglycemia, sepsis, fatty liver, exacerbation of inflammation, mortality) were attributed to TPN leading to its near abandon in favour of enteral nutrition (EN). Enteral feeding, although desirable for many reasons, is difficult causing a worldwide recurrence of malnutrition by insufficient feed delivery. TPN indications have evolved towards its use either alone or in combination with EN: several controversial trials published 2011-13 have investigated TPN timing, an issue which is not yet resolved. The initiation time varies according to the country between admission (Australia and Israel), day 4 (Swiss) and day 7 (Belgium, USA). The most important issue may prove to be and individualized and time dependent prescription of feeding route, energy and substrates.
Web of science
Last modification date