Inproceedings: An article in a conference proceedings.
Abstract (Abstract): shot summary in a article that contain essentials elements presented during a scientific conference, lecture or from a poster.
A post-processing pipeline to reconstruct the developing fetal brain using low-resolution MRI
Title of the conference
16th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping
Barcelona, Spain, June 6-10, 2010
Introduction. Development of the fetal brain surfacewith concomitant gyrification is one of the majormaturational processes of the human brain. Firstdelineated by postmortem studies or by ultrasound, MRIhas recently become a powerful tool for studying in vivothe structural correlates of brain maturation. However,the quantitative measurement of fetal brain developmentis a major challenge because of the movement of the fetusinside the amniotic cavity, the poor spatial resolution,the partial volume effect and the changing appearance ofthe developing brain. Today extensive efforts are made todeal with the âeurooepost-acquisitionâeuro reconstruction ofhigh-resolution 3D fetal volumes based on severalacquisitions with lower resolution (Rousseau, F., 2006;Jiang, S., 2007). We here propose a framework devoted tothe segmentation of the basal ganglia, the gray-whitetissue segmentation, and in turn the 3D corticalreconstruction of the fetal brain. Method. Prenatal MRimaging was performed with a 1-T system (GE MedicalSystems, Milwaukee) using single shot fast spin echo(ssFSE) sequences in fetuses aged from 29 to 32gestational weeks (slice thickness 5.4mm, in planespatial resolution 1.09mm). For each fetus, 6 axialvolumes shifted by 1 mm were acquired (about 1 min pervolume). First, each volume is manually segmented toextract fetal brain from surrounding fetal and maternaltissues. Inhomogeneity intensity correction and linearintensity normalization are then performed. A highspatial resolution image of isotropic voxel size of 1.09mm is created for each fetus as previously published byothers (Rousseau, F., 2006). B-splines are used for thescattered data interpolation (Lee, 1997). Then, basalganglia segmentation is performed on this superreconstructed volume using active contour framework witha Level Set implementation (Bach Cuadra, M., 2010). Oncebasal ganglia are removed from the image, brain tissuesegmentation is performed (Bach Cuadra, M., 2009). Theresulting white matter image is then binarized andfurther given as an input in the Freesurfer software(http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/) to provide accuratethree-dimensional reconstructions of the fetal brain.Results. High-resolution images of the cerebral fetalbrain, as obtained from the low-resolution acquired MRI,are presented for 4 subjects of age ranging from 29 to 32GA. An example is depicted in Figure 1. Accuracy in theautomated basal ganglia segmentation is compared withmanual segmentation using measurement of Dice similarity(DSI), with values above 0.7 considering to be a verygood agreement. In our sample we observed DSI valuesbetween 0.785 and 0.856. We further show the results ofgray-white matter segmentation overlaid on thehigh-resolution gray-scale images. The results arevisually checked for accuracy using the same principlesas commonly accepted in adult neuroimaging. Preliminary3D cortical reconstructions of the fetal brain are shownin Figure 2. Conclusion. We hereby present a completepipeline for the automated extraction of accuratethree-dimensional cortical surface of the fetal brain.These results are preliminary but promising, with theultimate goal to provide âeurooemovieâeuro of the normal gyraldevelopment. In turn, a precise knowledge of the normalfetal brain development will allow the quantification ofsubtle and early but clinically relevant deviations.Moreover, a precise understanding of the gyraldevelopment process may help to build hypotheses tounderstand the pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmentalconditions in which gyrification have been shown to bealtered (e.g. schizophrenia, autismâeuro¦). References.Rousseau, F. (2006), 'Registration-Based Approach forReconstruction of High-Resolution In Utero Fetal MR Brainimages', IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 13,no. 9, pp. 1072-1081. Jiang, S. (2007), 'MRI of MovingSubjects Using Multislice Snapshot Images With VolumeReconstruction (SVR): Application to Fetal, Neonatal, andAdult Brain Studies', IEEE Transactions on MedicalImaging, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 967-980. Lee, S. (1997),'Scattered data interpolation with multilevel B-splines',IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics,vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 228-244. Bach Cuadra, M. (2010),'Central and Cortical Gray Mater Segmentation of MagneticResonance Images of the Fetal Brain', ISMRM Conference.Bach Cuadra, M. (2009), 'Brain tissue segmentation offetal MR images', MICCAI.
Brain development, Fetal Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Image Analysis, Brain Tissue Classification, Cortical surface reconstruction
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