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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Evolution of proteins after whole-genome duplication
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Department of Ecology and Evolution Biophore, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
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Evolution of proteins after whole-genome duplicationGene and genome duplication are considered major mechanisms in the creation of newfunctions in genomes, or in the refinement of networks by the division of function amongmore genes. In animals, the best demonstrated whole genome duplication occurred at theorigin of Teleost fishes. This makes fishes an ideal model to study the consequences ofgenome duplication, particularly since we have a good sampling of genome sequences,abundant functional information, and a very well studied outgroup: the tetrapodes (includinghuman). More specifically, I studied the consequences of duplication on proteins usingevolutionary models to infer adaptive events. I analysed the influence of positive selection invertebrate genes, by contrasting singleton genes and duplicated genes. The conclusion of theanalyses was threefold: (i) positive selection affects diverse phylogenetic branches anddiverse gene categories during vertebrate evolution; (ii) it concerns only a small proportion ofsites (1%-5%); and (iii) whole genome duplication had no detectable impact on theprevalence of this positive selection.I also studied evolution at the amino acid level with different methods to detect functionalshifts (covarion process and constant-but-different process). As in my previous research, Ifound similar numbers of functional shifts between duplicates and between orthologs.The accepted framework for studies of molecular evolution is that orthologs share the samefunction, whereas the function of paralogs diverges. This framework gives a special place togene duplication in evolution, as the main mechanism for generating novelty. With myprevious results showing that duplication and speciation are not so different, we investigatedthe literature to question the evidence for similar or divergent evolution of gene function afterduplication relative to speciation genes. This led us to propose a more rigorous design offuture studies of gene duplication.Finally, based on my automated protocol, we built a database of positive selection invertebrates' genes, Selectome. This database is freely available on the web and will helpfuture evolutionary as well as biochemical studies.
Evolution, proteins, duplication, positive selection, genomics, bioinformatics,
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