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The role of Nedd4/Nedd4-like dependant ubiquitylation in epithelial transport processes
Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
Ubiquitylation has emerged as an important mechanism for controlling surface expression of membrane proteins. This post-translational modification involves the sequential action of several enzymes including a ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 and a ubiquitin-protein ligase E3. E3s are responsible for substrate recognition. Here we describe the role of the Nedd4/Nedd4-like family of ubiquitin-protein ligases in the regulation of proteins involved in epithelial transport. The Nedd4/Nedd4-like proteins are composed of a N-terminal C2 domain, several WW domains and a catalytic HECT domain. The epithelial Na(+) channel ENaC is the best studied example of a Nedd4/Nedd4-like substrate. Its cell surface expression is regulated by the ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4-2 via direct PY motif/WW domain interaction. This regulatory mechanism is impaired in Liddle's disease, an inherited form of human hypertension, and is controlled by Sgk1, an aldosterone-inducible kinase which phosphorylates Nedd4-2. The regulation of ENaC by Nedd4-2 is a paradigm for the control of epithelial membrane proteins, as evidenced by the regulation of the ClC-5 chloride channel by the ubiquitin-protein ligase WWP2 or the tight junction protein Occludin by Itch.
Animals Biological Transport/physiology Chloride Channels/metabolism Epithelial Sodium Channel Humans Membrane Proteins/metabolism Sodium Channels/*metabolism Ubiquitin/*metabolism Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*physiology
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