Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Exposition aux immunosuppresseurs in utero [Exposure in utero to immunosuppressives]
Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande
Publication types: English Abstract ; Journal Article ; Review
The number of pregnant women receiving immunosuppressive therapy is increasing. Use of immunosuppressants during pregnancy is indicated for anti-rejection therapy in transplantation patients and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Despite the maternal and fetal risks of these pregnancies, the proportion of surviving infants is improving and the possibility that a pregnancy could occur in these women during their childbearing years should be considered. All immunosuppressant drugs and their metabolites cross the placenta, raising questions about the long-term outcome of the children exposed to these agents in utera. There is no increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, there is an elevated incidence of prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and therefore low birthweight, as well as maternal hypertension and preeclampsia. The most frequent neonatal complications are those associated with prematurity and IUGR, as well as adrenal insufficiency with corticosteroids, immunological disturbances with azathioprine and cyclosporin, and hyperkalemia with tacrolimus. The long-term follow-up of infants exposed to immunosuppressants in utero is still limited and experimental studies raise the question whether there could be an increased incidence at adult age of some pathologies including renal insufficiency, hypertension and diabetes. The follow-up of these infants should be carefully organized and multidisciplinary, taking the perinatal context into account.
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology, Aftercare, Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy, Drug Monitoring, Female, Fetal Growth Retardation/chemically induced, Humans, Hypertension/chemically induced, Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects, Infant, Newborn, Maternal-Fetal Exchange, Obstetric Labor, Premature/chemically induced, Pre-Eclampsia/chemically induced, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Transplantation Immunology
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