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Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids: More than just a rare disease.
Publication types: Journal Article Publication Status: ppublishDocument Type: Editorial Material
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a progressive white matter disease with a wide range of clinical symptoms including dementia, behavioral changes, seizures, pyramidal signs, ataxia, and parkinsonism.(1-3) Affected individuals develop symptoms in their early 40s with an average survival time of 10 years. HDLS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Recently, mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene (CSF-1R) were identified as the genetic cause of HDLS.(4) White matter lesions, easily demonstrated on MRI studies, involve predominantly the frontal lobes and corpus callosum with subsequent cortical atrophy. MRI abnormalities are present prior to symptom onset.(5,6) Histopathology shows widespread myelin and axon destruction with axonal dilations termed spheroids, as well as pigmented macrophages.
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