Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Current Status of Urinary Biomarkers for Detection and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer.
Urologic Clinics of North America
The standard of care for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer consists of cytology and cystoscopy, but both examinations suffer from many limitations, including issues related to accuracy, invasiveness, and cost. Several noninvasive methods for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer have been developed and urine-based biomarkers seem the most promising. This nonsystematic review critically analyzes the commercially available biomarkers and highlights some upcoming investigational biomarkers. To date, none of these biomarkers has sufficient validation to serve as a reliable alternative to cystoscopy.
Biomarkers, Tumor/urine, Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/diagnosis, Cystoscopy, Disease Progression, Humans, Prognosis, Sensitivity and Specificity, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis
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