Article: a PhD thesis.
The alarmin HMGB1 enhances CXCR4-induced activities by binding CXCL12
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecineUniversité de LausanneUNIL - BugnonRue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111CH-1015 LausanneSUISSE
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A variety of chemokines and inflammatory molecules are concomitantly produced at target sites of leukocyte trafficking and homing, accounting for the complex cellular responses occurring in homeostasis and inflammation. The chemokine CXCL12 plays an essential and unique role in homeostatic regulation of leukocyte traffic and tissue regeneration. The chromatin protein HMGB1 is released by dying and distressed cells, and acts as a Damage Associated Molecular Pattern or alarmin, promoting cell migration towards the site of tissue damage. We show here that HMGB1 synergises with CXCL12 by forming a heterocomplex that we characterized by NMR chemical shift mapping. The heterocomplex enhances CXCR4-induced responses on cells of the immune system, acting exclusively through the CXCL12 receptor CXCR4, and not through the HMGB1 receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. FRET analysis show that CXCL12 and CXCL12+HMGB1 promote a different conformational change in the homodimer CXCR4. The enhancement induced by HMGB1 on CXCL12-induced migration is selective, since little changes in migration of neutrophils and PreB 300.19-CCR2+ or -CCR7+ are observed towards CXCL8 and CCR2 or CCR7 agonists. HMGB1 also promotes CXCL 12 release, which is ultimately responsible for the chemoattractant activities of HMGB1. This study highlights the role of HMGB1 in promoting CXCL12-dependent cell migration, and suggests a cooperative role of these two molecules in tissue repair as well as in pathological conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
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