Article: article from journal or magazin.
Calcium reabsorption in the distal tubule: regulation by sodium, pH, and flow.
American Journal of Physiology.
We developed a mathematical model of Ca transport along the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT2) and the connecting tubule (CNT) to investigate the mechanisms that regulate Ca reabsorption in the DCT2-CNT. The model accounts for apical Ca influx across transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) channels and basolateral Ca efflux via plasma membrane Ca-ATPase pumps and type 1 Na/Ca exchangers (NCX1). Model simulations reproduce experimentally observed variations in Ca uptake as a function of extracellular pH, Na, and Mg concentration. Our results indicate that amiloride enhances Ca reabsorption in the DCT2-CNT predominantly by increasing the driving force across NCX1, thereby stimulating Ca efflux. They also suggest that because aldosterone upregulates both apical and basolateral Na transport pathways, it has a lesser impact on Ca reabsorption than amiloride. Conversely, the model predicts that full NCX1 inhibition and parathyroidectomy each augment the Ca load delivered to the collecting duct severalfold. In addition, our results suggest that regulation of TRPV5 activity by luminal pH has a small impact, per se, on transepithelial Ca fluxes; the reduction in Ca reabsorption induced by metabolic acidosis likely stems from decreases in TRPV5 expression. In contrast, elevations in luminal Ca are predicted to significantly decrease TRPV5 activity via the Ca-sensing receptor. Nevertheless, following the administration of furosemide, the calcium-sensing receptor-mediated increase in Ca reabsorption in the DCT2-CNT is calculated to be insufficient to prevent hypercalciuria. Altogether, our model predicts complex interactions between calcium and sodium reabsorption in the DCT2-CNT.
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