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Innate sensors for Gram-positive bacteria.
Current Opinion in Immunology
More than half of invasive bacterial infections are Gram-positive in origin. This class of bacteria has neither endotoxins nor an outer membrane, yet it generates some of the most powerful inflammatory responses known in medicine. Some recent seminal studies go a long way toward settling the controversies that surround the process by which Gram-positive bacterial surfaces trigger the human immune system. Although the components of the cell wall are now chemically defined in exquisite detail and the interaction with the toll-like receptor 2 pathway has been discovered, it is only very recently that definitive studies combining these advanced biochemical and cell biological tools have been carried out. It is these breakthrough studies that have finally confirmed the paradigm of innate sensors for Gram-positive bacteria.
Carbohydrate Sequence, Cell Wall/immunology, Cell Wall/metabolism, Gram-Positive Bacteria/cytology, Gram-Positive Bacteria/immunology, Humans, Immunity, Innate/immunology, Molecular Sequence Data, Structure-Activity Relationship
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