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Réponse rénale à l'expansion volémique aiguë dans l'hyperaldostéronisme primaire [Renal response to acute volume expansion in primary hyperaldosteronism]
Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux
The exaggerated natriuretic response to extracellular fluid volume expansion (VE) observed in essential hypertension (EH) is related directly to blood pressure (BP) and indirectly to plasma renin activity (PRA). In order to evaluate the precise role of different hormonal parameters, the response to acute VE (isotonic saline, 1,800 ml IV over 3 hours) was assessed in 14 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA, surgically proven adrenal adenoma) and 18 clinically matched EH. At the time of the maneuver, BP and sodium intake were similar in the two groups, but serum potassium (2.89 +/- 0.13 vs 3.69 +/- 0.09 mmol/l), PRA (0.9 +/- 0.2 vs 3.5 +/- 0.9 ng/ml/h) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC, 25.9 +/- 3.8 vs 12.6 +/- 1.6 ng/dl) were significantly different. During VE, sodium excretion (UNaV) increased more in PA than in EH (98.1 +/- 15.2 vs 63.5 +/- 7.9 mmol/3 h); moreover, the slope of the regression line relating UNAVVE to UNaVcontrol was significantly steeper in PA. By contrast, the change in BP and indices of VE (hematocrit and plasma protein concentration) as well as the decrease in PRA (-45 +/- 9 vs -43 +/- 5 p. 100) and the increase in ANP (+ 65 +/- 16 vs + 69 +/- 28 p. 100) were similar in the two groups. VE left PAC unchanged in PA, whilst it decreased PAC in EH. We conclude that the natriuretic response to volume expansion is more marked in primary aldosteronism than in essential hypertension, a difference which is not explained by variations in the renin-angiotensin system or atrial natriuretic peptide.
Female, Humans, Hyperaldosteronism/physiopathology, Hypertension/physiopathology, Kidney/physiopathology, Male, Middle Aged, Natriuresis, Plasma Volume
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