Article: article from journal or magazin.
Metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions in basal conditions and during the acute-phase response to endotoxic shock in undernourished rats
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Chronic malnutrition is one of the most important causes of several metabolic, immune and neuroendocrine dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of chronic food restriction on basal neuroendocrine, immune and adipocyte functions and during the acute-phase response to endotoxic shock in female rats. The effect of refeeding of undernourished rats on the above-mentioned functions was also investigated. For these purposes, plasma total protein, glucose, triglycerides, ACTH, corticosterone, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and leptin (LEP) levels were determined in basal condition and 2 h after endotoxin (LPS; 180 microgram/kg body weight, i.p.) administration in 3 different groups: (1) well-nourished (WN) controls; (2) undernourished (UN) rats as a consequence of chronic food restriction, and (3) UN rats re-fed to restoration of their body weights in the WN rat range. The results indicate that UN rats, in comparison with WN controls, developed an arrest in body weight gain as well as in basal hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, hypoleptinemia, hypercorticosteronemia and enhanced adrenal glucocorticoid content; however, no changes in basal total protein, ACTH and TNF plasma levels and in anterior pituitary ACTH concentrations were found. When endotoxic shock was induced, the LPS-induced hypoglycemia developed in WN rats was abolished in UN animals, and both ACTH and TNF plasma concentrations after endotoxin, albeit significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the respective basal values, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in UN than in WN control rats. Despite the high basal plasma corticosterone concentration in UN vs. WN rats, the LPS-induced glucocorticoid release was similar in WN and UN rats. Additionally, LPS treatment did not modify basal plasma LEP levels, regardless of the group. Interestingly, UN rats fed ad libitum for 15 days restored their body weight to WN rat range values, and the various metabolic dysfunctions seen in UN rats in both basal and post-LPS conditions were fully normalized. Our results clearly indicate that chronic undernutrition not only affects, as earlier described, reproductive function but also metabolic, neuroendocrine, immune and adipocyte functions, and that the effects induced by undernutrition can be fully reversed after recovery of normal body weight. The present study strongly supports the involvement of the metabolic status in the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms developed in patients in inflammatory stress conditions.
*Acute-Phase Reaction/blood/chemically induced/immunology/metabolism Adipocytes/drug effects/*metabolism Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood Aging/physiology Animals Blood Glucose/analysis Corticosterone/blood Female Food Deprivation Immune System/drug effects/immunology/*physiopathology Leptin/blood Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage/pharmacology Matched-Pair Analysis Neurosecretory Systems/drug effects/metabolism/*physiopathology *Nutrition Disorders/blood/immunology/metabolism Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley *Shock, Septic/blood/chemically induced/immunology/metabolism Triglycerides/blood Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis Weight Gain
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