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Ghrelin gene-related peptides modulate rat white adiposity
Vitamins and Hormones
It is known that ghrelin and des-N-octanoyl (desacyl) ghrelin modulate food intake and adipogenesis in vivo. However, desacyl ghrelin represents the majority of ghrelin forms found in the circulation. The present study explored whether ghrelin gene-derived compounds could modulate, in vitro, adipocyte endocrine function and preadipocyte differentiation. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipocytes were cultured in the absence or presence of either ghrelin or desacyl ghrelin and in combination with either inhibitors of protein synthesis, insulin, dexamethasone (DXM), or GHSR1a antagonist. The results indicate that both ghrelin forms possess a direct leptin-releasing activity (LRA) on RP adipocytes and significantly enhanced adipocyte ob mRNA expression. These activities were related and unrelated to the activation of GHSR1a after coincubation with ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, respectively. Moreover, desacyl ghrelin facilitated RP preadipocyte differentiation. Desacyl ghrelin enhanced cell lipid content, and PPARgamma2, and LPL mRNAs expression. The LRAs developed by different substances tested followed a rank order: ghrelin > desacyl ghrelin = insulin >/= DXM. Additionally, desacyl ghrelin was able to enhance medium glucose consumption by mature adipocytes in culture. These data strongly support that adipogenesis and adipocyte function are processes directly and positively modulated by ghrelin gene-derived peptides, thus further indicating that, besides their effects on food intake, ghrelin gene-derived peptides could play an important role on adiposity for maintaining homeostasis.
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