Article: article from journal or magazin.
Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, and nicotinamide in glioblastoma multiforme: report of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 22933.
Journal of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE: A three-step phase I/II trial associating accelerated radiotherapy with carbogen (step 1, ARCO), with nicotinamide (step 2, ARN), or with both (step 3, ARCON) was conducted, the aim of which was to overcome the effects of proliferation and hypoxia as potential causes of tumor radioresistance in glioblastoma multiforme. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Radiotherapy consisted of 60 Gy delivered over 4 weeks in 1.5-Gy fractions twice daily, 5 days a week. Carbogen breathing was started 5 minutes before each fraction and continued until the end of each treatment session. Nicotinamide was given daily as a single oral dose of 85 mg/kg. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients with a median age of 55 years were registered. Of 107 eligible patients, 23 were registered in step 1, 28 in step 2, and 56 in step 3. The planned treatment was administered without any interruption in 72% of patients (86% in ARCO but 68% in ARN and ARCON). The incidence and severity of acute skin and mucous membrane toxicity were higher in patients who received nicotinamide (ie, the ARN and ARCON groups). Grade 1 to 2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 44% of patients in the ARN group and 32% of patients in the ARCON group, but only in 8% of patients in the ARCO group. Eight percent of evaluated patients presented with abnormal liver test results at treatment completion. The dose of corticosteroids had to be increased in 44% of patients. Late neurologic side effects were similar in all treatment steps and were observed mostly in patients with disease progression. Median survival times for patients treated with ARCO, ARN, and ARCON were 10.1, 9.7, and 11.1 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Feasibility of ARCO treatment was good but that of ARN and ARCON was only fair. This probably reflected the higher acute toxicity rate, particularly gastrointestinal, for patients receiving nicotinamide. The dose of corticosteroids had to be increased frequently during treatment, suggesting a higher than expected acute neurologic toxicity. Overall survival was similar in the three treatment steps and not different when compared with results of other series that used radiotherapy alone.
Administration, Inhalation, Administration, Oral, Adult, Aged, Brain Neoplasms/pathology, Brain Neoplasms/radiotherapy, Carbon Dioxide/administration & dosage, Carbon Dioxide/adverse effects, Cell Division, Cell Hypoxia, Dose Fractionation, Female, Glioblastoma/pathology, Glioblastoma/radiotherapy, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Niacinamide/administration & dosage, Niacinamide/adverse effects, Oxygen/administration & dosage, Oxygen/adverse effects, Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/administration & dosage, Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/adverse effects, Survival Analysis, Treatment Outcome
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