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Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study
Title of the conference
ASTRO 2011, 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology
Miami Beach, Florida, October 2-6, 2011
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Purpose/Objective(s): Adenosquamous carcinoma (AC) of the head and neck is a distinct entity first described in 1968. Its natural history is more aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma but this is based on very small series reported in the literature. The goal of this study was to assess the clinical profile, outcome, patterns of failure and prognostic factors in patients with AC of the head and neck treated by radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy (CT).Materials/Methods: Data from 18 patients with Stage I (n = 3), II (n = 1), III (n = 4), or IVa (n = 10) AC, treated between 1989 and 2009, were collected in a retrospective multicenter Rare Cancer Network study. Median age was 60 years (range, 48 - 73 years). Fourteen patients were male and 4 female. Risk factors, including perineural invasion, lymphangitis, vascular invasion, positive margins, were present in 83% of the patients. Tumor sites included oral cavity in 4, oropharynx in 4, hypopharynx in2, larynx in 2, salivary glands in 2, nasal vestibule in 2, nasopharynx in 1, and maxillary sinus in 1 patient. Surgery (S) was performed in all but 5 patients. S alone was performed in only 1 patient, and definitive RT alone in 3 patients. Fourteen patients received combined modality treatment (S+RT in 10, RT+CT in 2, and all of the three modalities in 2 patients). Median RT dose to the primary and to the nodes was 66 Gy (range, 50 - 72 Gy) and 53 Gy (range, 44 - 66 Gy), respectively (1.8 - 2.0 Gy/fr., 5 fr./ week). In 4 patients, the planning treatment volume included the primary tumor site only. Seven patients were treated with 2D RT, 7 with 3D conformal RT, and 2 with intensity-modulated RT.Results: After a median follow-up period of 38 months (range, 9 - 62 months), 8 patients developed distant metastases (lung, bone, mediastinum, and liver), 6 presented nodal recurrences, and only 4 had a local relapse at the primary site (all in-field recurrences). At last follow-up, 6 patients were alive without disease, 1 alive with disease, 9 died from progressive disease, and 2 died from intercurrent disease. The 3-year and median overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional control rates were 52% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28 - 76%) and 39 months, 36% (95% CI: 13 - 49%) and 12 months, and 54% (95% CI: 26 - 82%) and 40 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis (Cox model), DFS was negatively influenced by the presence of extracapsular extension (p = 0.02) and advanced stage (IV versus I-III, p = 0.003).Conclusions: Overall prognosis of locoregionally advanced AC remains poor, and distant metastases and nodal relapse occur in almost half of the cases. However, local control is relatively good, and early stage AC patients had prolonged DFS when treated with combined modality treatment.
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