Article: article from journal or magazin.
Immunological analyses of alkyl-dihydroxyacetone-phosphate synthase in human peroxisomal disorders.
European Journal of Cell Biology
Alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase (alkyl-DHAP synthase) is a peroxisomal enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids. To localize the enzyme in human peroxisomal disorders, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis was performed. In Zellweger syndrome and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata fibroblast cell lines, alkyl-DHAP synthase protein levels on immunoblots were strongly decreased and residual immunofluorescence was diffusely localized throughout the cytoplasm. In a particular neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy cell line, characterized by the absence of a functional peroxisomal targeting signal 1 receptor, the precursor form of the enzyme was detected in Western blots at levels comparable to that of the mature enzyme in control fibroblasts. Similarly, fibroblasts from patients with a single deficiency in the activity of either alkyl-DHAP synthase or DHAP-acyltransferase showed normal levels of the mature alkyl-DHAP synthase protein on immunoblots. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed a peroxisomal localization of both the precursor and the mature form of the enzyme. Collectively, these results visualize the peroxisomal localization of alkyl-DHAP synthase, indicate that the enzyme is unstable outside its target organelle and explain that normal enzyme protein levels found in some peroxisomal disorders result from protection against cytoplasmic degradation through import into peroxisomes. Additionally, alkyl-DHAP synthase could be detected in rat mesangial cells and murine NIH-3R3 fibroblasts by immunofluorescence as well as immunoblot analysis. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the enzyme is predominantly located on the lumenal side of the peroxisomal membrane in rat and guinea pig liver.
3T3 Cells, Acyltransferases/deficiency, Alkyl and Aryl Transferases/analysis, Animals, Antibody Specificity, Blotting, Western, Cells, Cultured, Fibroblasts/cytology, Fibroblasts/enzymology, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect, Glomerular Mesangium/cytology, Glomerular Mesangium/enzymology, Guinea Pigs, Humans, Liver/enzymology, Mice, Microbodies/enzymology, Microscopy, Immunoelectron, Peroxisomal Disorders/enzymology, Rats
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