Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Prevalence of respiratory viruses among febrile children with or without acute respiratory symptoms in Tanzania
Title of the conference
7th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health
Barcelona, Spain, October 3-6, 2011
Tropical Medicine and International Health
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Background Respiratory viruses are the most frequent cause of febrile illnesses in infants and young children but few investigations have assessed their impact and epidemiology in Africa . We investigated their rate in febrile outpatient children attending in Tanzania. Methods Children aged 2 months -10 years with fever >38 _C were recruited prospectively between April and December 2008. Medical history and clinical examination were recorded in a standardized fashion and nasopharyngeal swabs analyzed for the presence of 12 viruses by real-time PCR (FLUAV, FLUBV, RSV, MPV, HPIV-1/3, four types of HCoV, HBoV, PIC and HAdV). Ct values were used to provide semi-quantitative viral loads.Results Of 1005 febrile children enrolled, 623 (62%) had respiratory symptoms (URTI in 66%, bronchiolitis in 7% and clinical pneumonia in 27%); 156 (16%) had febrile illness that remained of unspecified etiology and 226 (22%) had other infectious diseases and no ARI (62 malaria, 56 gastroenteritis, 36 urinary tract and 72 others). The proportions of patients with at least one respiratory virus were 70%, 61% and 47% (Pvalue < 0.001) in these three groups. When excluding picornavirus and adenovirus these proportions were 48%, 24% and 26% (P-value < 0.001). Apart from picornavirus and adenovirus, influenza A and B viruses were the most frequent followed by coronavirus and RSV. The proportion of children with presumably high viral titers (Ct < 25) was higher in the group with respiratory symptoms (31%) than in the two other groups (21% and 16%). Influenza genotyping revealed strains that were similar to the ones circulating elsewhere in the world.Conclusion In African children with febrile illness, the prevalence of respiratory viruses, especially influenza A and B, is high particularly in the presence of respiratory symptoms, but also, although less so, in those with unspecified etiology or other infectious diseases. This highlights that these viruses are commonly circulating in Tanzanian children.
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