Is cannabis use a significant exposition to nicotine?


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Is cannabis use a significant exposition to nicotine?
Titre de la conférence
2011 SAHM Annual Meeting (Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine)
Bélanger Richard E., Marclay François, Berchtold André, Akré Christina, Saugy Martial, Suris Joan-Carles
Seattle, Washington, United-States, March 29-April 1, 2010
Statut éditorial
Date de publication
Journal of Adolescent Health
Meeting Abstract
Purpose: Young cannabis users are at increased risk for cigarette initiation and later progression to nicotine dependence. The present study assesses to which extent cannabis users are exposed to nicotine through mulling, a widespread process consisting of mixing tobacco to cannabis for its consumption.
Methods: Data are issued from an ongoing observational study taking place in Switzerland. A total of 267 eligible participants (mean age 19 years, 46.4% males) completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire on their tobacco and cannabis intake in the previous 5 days. They also provided a urine sample that was blindly analyzed for cotinine (a key metabolite of nicotine) using liquid-chromatography coupled mass-spectrometry. After the exclusion of cannabis users not having smoked at least one joint/blunt in which tobacco had been mixed (n _ 2), and participants reporting other sources of nicotine exposition than cigarettes or mulling (n _37), four groups were created: cannabis and cigarette abstainers (ABS, n_ 69), cannabis only smokers (CAS; n _ 33), cigarette only smokers (CIS; n _ 62); and cannabis and cigarette smokers (CCS, n _ 64). Cotinine measures of CAS were compared to those of ABS, CIS and CCS. All comparisons were performed using ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and environmental exposure to cigarette smoke in the past month (at home, in school/at work, in social settings). The number of mixed joints/blunts smoked in the previous 5 days was additionally taken into account when comparing CAS to CCS. Cotinine values (ng/ml) are reported as means with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
Results: In the previous 5 days, CAS had smoked on average 10 mixed joints/blunts, CIS 30 cigarettes, and CCS 8 mixed joints/ blunts and 41 cigarettes. Cotinine levels of participants considerably differed between groups. The lowest measure was found among ABS (3.2 [0.5-5.9]), followed in growing order by CAS (294.6 [157.1-432.0]), CIS (362.8 [258.4-467.3]), and CCS (649.9 [500.7-799.2]). In the multivariate analysis, cotinine levels of CAS were significantly higher than those of ABS (p _.001), lower than those of CCS (p _ .003), but did not differ from levels of CIS (p _ .384).
Conclusions: Our study reveals cannabis users to be significantly exposed to nicotine through mulling, even after controlling for several possible confounders such as environmental exposure to cigarette smoke. Utmost, mixing tobacco to Poster cannabis can result in a substantial nicotine exposition as cotinine levels from cannabis only smokers were as high as those of moderate cigarette smokers. Our findings also suggest that mulling is adding up to the already important nicotine exposition of cigarettes smokers. Because of the addictiveness of nicotine, mulling should be part of a comprehensive assessment of substance use among adolescents and young adults, especially when supporting their cannabis and cigarette quitting attempts.
Sources of Support: This study was funded by the Public Health Service of the Canton de Vaud. Dr. BÊlanger's contribution was possible through grants from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, the CHUQ/CMDP Foundation and the Laval University McLaughlin program, QuÊbec, Canada.
MeSH : Adolescent , Young Adult , Marijuana Smoking , Smoking , Risk Factors , Switzerland
Web of science
Création de la notice
15/03/2011 14:43
Dernière modification de la notice
03/03/2018 19:31
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