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Studies of the renal effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade: the confounding factor of acute water loading on the action of vasoactive systems.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases
The acute renal tubular effects of two pharmacologically distinct angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been evaluated in normotensive volunteers on various salt diets. In the first study, the renal response to a single oral dose of losartan (100 mg) was assessed in subjects on a low (50 mmol Na/d) and on a high (200 mmol Na/d) salt intake. In a second protocol, the renal effects of 50 mg irbesartan were investigated in subjects receiving a 100 mmol Na/d diet. Both angiotensin II antagonists induced a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion. With losartan, a modest, transient increase in urinary potassium and a significant increase in uric acid excretion were found. In contrast, no change in potassium and uric acid excretions were observed with irbesartan, suggesting that the effects of losartan on potassium and uric acid are due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of losartan rather than to the specific blockade of renal angiotensin II receptors. Assessment of segmental sodium reabsorption using lithium as a marker of proximal tubular reabsorption demonstrated a decreased distal reabsorption of sodium with both antagonists. A direct proximal tubular natriuretic effect of the angiotensin II antagonist could be demonstrated only with irbesartan. This apparent discrepancy allowed us to reveal the importance of acute water loading as a possible confounding factor in renal studies. The results of the present analysis show that acute water loading per se may enhance renal sodium excretion and hence modify the level of activity of the renin-angiotensin system expected from a given sodium diet. Since acute water loading is a common practice in clinical renal studies, this confounding factor should be taken into account when investigating the renal effects of vasoactive systems.
Adult, Analysis of Variance, Angiotensin II, Biphenyl Compounds, Humans, Imidazoles, Kidney, Kidney Tubules, Losartan, Natriuresis, Potassium, Receptors, Angiotensin, Renin-Angiotensin System, Sodium, Sodium, Dietary, Tetrazoles, Uric Acid, Vasomotor System, Water
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