Article: article from journal or magazin.
Cataractogenesis after total body irradiation.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Publication types: Journal Article - Publication Status: ppublish
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic factors and the ophthalmologic follow-up on cataract formation following total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1980 and 1992, 494 patients were referred to our department for TBI prior to BMT. The mean age was 32 +/- 11 (median: 32, range: 2-63) years and the male to female ratio was 1.6 (304:190). The majority of patients were treated for acute leukemia (lymphoblastic, n = 177, 36%; or nonlymphoblastic , n = 139, 28%); 80 (16%) for chronic myeloid leukemia, 60 (12%) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 23 (5%) for multiple myeloma, and 15 (3%) for other malignancies. Two hundred and fifty-four (51%) patients were grafted in the first complete remission (CR), 118 (24%) in second CR. Allogenic BMT was performed in 210 (43%) patients, and autologous BMT in 284 (57%). Methotrexate combined to steroids (n = 47, 22%) or to cyclosporine (n = 163, 78%) was administered for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. In 188 patients (38%), heparin was used in the prevention of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver. Furthermore, steroid administration was registered in 223 (45%). The conditioning chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (Cy) alone in 332 (67%) patients. Total-body irradiation was administered either in single dose (STBI; 10 Gy in 1 day, n = 291) or in six fractions (FTBI; 12 Gy over 3 consecutive days, n = 203) before BMT. The mean instantaneous dose rate was 0.0574 +/- 0.0289 Gy/min (0.024-0.1783). It was < 0.048 Gy/min in 157 patients (LOW group), > or = 0.048 Gy/min and <0.09 Gy/min in 301 patients (MEDIUM group), and > or = 0.09 Gy/min in 36 patients (HIGH group). RESULTS: When considering all patients, 42 (8.5%) patients developed cataracts after 13 to 72 months (median: 42 months) with a 5-year estimated cataract incidence (ECI) of 23%. Thirty-three (11.3%) out of 291 patients in the STBI group, and 9 (4.4%) out of 203 patients in the FTBI group developed cataracts with 5-year estimated incidences of 34 and 11%, respectively (p = 0.0004). Seven (19.4%) out of 36 patients in the HIGH group, 33 (10.9%) out of 301 in the MEDIUM group, and 2 (1.2%) out of 157 in the LOW group developed cataracts with respective 5-year cataract incidences of 54%, 30%, and 3.5% (HIGH vs. MEDIUM, p = 0.07; MEDIUM vs. LOW, p = 0.0001; HIGH vs. LOW, p < 0.0001). On the other hand, patients who received heparin as prophylactic treatment against VOD of the liver had less cataracts than those who did not receive (5-year ECI of 16% vs. 28%, respectively; p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year ECI according to age, sex, administration of steroids, GvHD prophylaxis, type of BMT, or previous cranial radiotherapy in children. Multivariate analysis revealed that the instantaneous dose rate (p = 0.001), and the administration of heparin against VOD (p = 0.05) were the two independent factors influencing the cataract incidence, while age, fractionation, and use of steroids were not. Among the 42 patients who developed cataracts, 38 had bilateral extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, and only 4 (10%) developed secondary cataracts in a median follow-up period of 39 months. CONCLUSION: Among the abovementioned TBI parameters, high instantaneous dose rate seems to be the main risk factor of cataract formation, and the administration of heparin appears to have a protective role in cataractogenesis. On the other hand, ionizing radiation seems to have a protective effect on posterior capsule opacification following extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation.
Adolescent, Adult, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Cataract, Cataract Extraction, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Time Factors, Whole-Body Irradiation
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