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Characterization of p53 mutations in methylene chloride-induced lung tumors from B6C3F1 mice
Journal Article --- Old month value: May
Mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common defined genetic alterations seen in a wide variety of human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the importance of the p53 gene in chemically induced tumors of rodents, which are widely used as models for the evaluation of human health risks. In this study we examined 54 methylene chloride-induced and seven spontaneously arising lung tumors from female B6C3F1 mice for losses of heterozygosity (LOH) at markers near the p53 gene on chromosome 11. LOH was detected in seven methylene chloride-induced lung carcinomas by Southern analysis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR analysis of five simple sequence length polymorphisms. In each case allele loss was observed at all six markers; thus, these chromosomal alterations were likely to have resulted from mitotic nondisjunction. In contrast, LOH was not detected in 20 liver tumors from methylene chloride-treated mice at the Acrb locus, which is tightly linked to the p53 gene on chromosome 11. In addition single strand conformation polymorphism analysis was performed to screen for mutations in the most conserved regions of the p53 gene (exons 5 to 8). Consequently, potential mutations identified by direct sequencing, were only detected in four of the seven tumor samples with LOH, but not in any of the remaining lung tumors. Overexpression of the p53 protein by immunohistochemical staining was detected only in the four tumors that contained p53 point mutations and in a focal area of another tumor. Finally, using a simple sequence length polymorphism within the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, LOH on mouse chromosome 14 was also detected in three lung carcinomas and one liver tumor. Inactivation of p53 and possibly the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene appear to be infrequent events in lung and liver tumors from methylene chloride treated mice.
Animals Base Sequence Carcinogens/*toxicity Chromosome Mapping DNA, Neoplasm/genetics/isolation & purification Exons Female *Genes, p53 Genetic Markers Heterozygote Immunohistochemistry Lung Neoplasms/chemically induced/*genetics/pathology Methylene Chloride/*toxicity Mice Mice, Inbred Strains Molecular Sequence Data *Mutagenesis Oligodeoxyribonucleotides Polymorphism, Genetic Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/analysis
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