Article: article from journal or magazin.
C4d deposition in allografts: current concepts and interpretation
Alloantibody responses are not prevented by the latest immunosuppressive regimens and contribute to increased early and late renal allograft graft loss. Numerous papers have set forth the clinical, pathological, and immunopathological features of acute humoral rejection, in particular the strong correlation between the presence of C4d deposition and circulating antidonor HLA class I and class II antibodies. Humoral rejection also occurs in a chronic setting, associated with chronic allograft glomerulopathy and arteriopathy. C4d deposition can also be found in stable grafts without concurrent graft pathology, a finding that may indicate accommodation. The central diagnostic criterion for humoral rejection is the demonstration of C4d in peritubular capillaries. The criteria for humoral rejection are not as widely accepted for other organs, such as the heart, lung, and pancreas, although humoral rejection, including C4d deposition, has been described. This review focuses on the practical aspects of this test, particularly as applied routinely in renal allografts since 1998 in our laboratory.
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