Article: article from journal or magazin.
Coronary vasomotor responses to isometric handgrip exercise are primarily mediated by nitric oxide: a noninvasive MRI test of coronary endothelial function.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO) is a defining characteristic of nondiseased arteries, and abnormal endothelial NO release is both a marker of early atherosclerosis and a predictor of its progression and future events. Healthy coronaries respond to endothelial-dependent stressors with vasodilatation and increased coronary blood flow (CBF), but those with endothelial dysfunction respond with paradoxical vasoconstriction and reduced CBF. Recently, coronary MRI and isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) were reported to noninvasively quantify coronary endothelial function (CEF). However, it is not known whether the coronary response to IHE is actually mediated by NO and/or whether it is reproducible over weeks. To determine the contribution of NO, we studied the coronary response to IHE before and during infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA, 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), a NO-synthase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. For reproducibility, we performed two MRI-IHE studies ∼8 wk apart in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Changes from rest to IHE in coronary cross-sectional area (%CSA) and diastolic CBF (%CBF) were quantified. l-NMMA completely blocked normal coronary vasodilation during IHE [%CSA, 12.9 ± 2.5 (mean ± SE, placebo) vs. -0.3 ± 1.6% (l-NMMA); P < 0.001] and significantly blunted the increase in flow [%CBF, 47.7 ± 6.4 (placebo) vs. 10.6 ± 4.6% (l-NMMA); P < 0.001]. MRI-IHE measures obtained weeks apart strongly correlated for CSA (P < 0.0001) and CBF (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the normal human coronary vasoactive response to IHE is primarily mediated by NO. This noninvasive, reproducible MRI-IHE exam of NO-mediated CEF promises to be useful for studying CAD pathogenesis in low-risk populations and for evaluating translational strategies designed to alter CAD in patients.
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