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Formoterol and isoproterenol induce c-fos gene expression in osteoblast-like cells by activating beta2-adrenergic receptors.
Formoterol, a beta2-adrenergic agonist has been shown in ovariectomized rat models to have anabolic effects on bone. However, those studies did not determine whether the effect of formoterol was by a direct action on bone cells themselves or indirectly via anabolic action on muscle. To address the question of whether formoterol could directly affect osteoblast function we investigated the expression patterns of beta3-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) in human osteoblast-like cells and functional coupling to gene expression. Northern blot analysis showed that betaAR subtypes are expressed at different levels in the osteoblast-like cell lines TE-85, SaOS-2, MG-63, and OHS-4. beta1AR expression was found in SaOS-2, OHS-4, and TE-85, but not MG-63 cells. beta2ARs are expressed at higher levels in MG-63 cells than in TE-85 and SaOS-2 cells, but were not detected in OHS-4 cells. PCR analysis paralleled the northern blot analysis except that beta3AR expression was found in one of three human primary osteoblast cDNAs tested. beta3AR expression was not found in any of the osteoblast-like cell lines. The nonspecific betaAR agonist, isoproterenol, and the beta2AR-specific agonist, formoterol, induced c-fos gene expression in cultured SaOS-2 cells in an immediate early fashion. This effect was inhibited by the beta2AR-specific antagonist, ICI 118551, but not by the beta1AR-specific antagonist, CGP 20712, indicating that induction of c-fos gene expression is specifically mediated by beta2ARs. c-fos gene expression was induced by both isoproterenol and formoterol via increases in cAMP, which in turn activated the cAMP/PKA pathway; the PKA inhibitor, H89, inhibited c-fos gene expression. Thus, betaARs are expressed in osteoblast-like cells and are coupled to c-fos gene expression via the beta2AR, increases in cAMP levels and activation of a PKA-dependent pathway.
Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology, Animals, Cyclic AMP/metabolism, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism, DNA, Complementary/metabolism, Enzyme Activation/drug effects, Ethanolamines/pharmacology, Gene Expression/drug effects, Gene Expression/genetics, Genes, Immediate-Early/drug effects, Genes, Immediate-Early/genetics, Genes, fos, Humans, Imidazoles/pharmacology, Isoproterenol/pharmacology, Osteoblasts/drug effects, Propanolamines/pharmacology, Rats, Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/drug effects, Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/genetics, Tumor Cells, Cultured
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