Article: article from journal or magazin.
Glycogen synthase 2 is a novel target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Glycogen synthase 2 (Gys-2) is the ratelimiting enzyme in the storage of glycogen in liver and adipose tissue, yet little is known about regulation of Gys-2 transcription. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and might be hypothesized to govern glycogen synthesis as well. Here, we show that Gys-2 is a direct target gene of PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma. Expression of Gys-2 is significantly reduced in adipose tissue of PPARalpha-/-, PPARbeta/delta-/- and PPARgamma+/- mice. Furthermore, synthetic PPARbeta/delta, and gamma agonists markedly up-regulate Gys-2 mRNA and protein expression in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In liver, PPARalpha deletion leads to decreased glycogen levels in the refed state, which is paralleled by decreased expression of Gys-2 in fasted and refed state. Two putative PPAR response elements (PPREs) were identified in the mouse Gys-2 gene: one in the upstream promoter (DR-1prom) and one in intron 1 (DR-1int). It is shown that DR-1int is the response element for PPARs, while DR-1prom is the response element for Hepatic Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4alpha). In adipose tissue, which does not express HNF4alpha, DR-1prom is occupied by PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma, yet binding does not translate into transcriptional activation of Gys-2. Overall, we conclude that mouse Gys-2 is a novel PPAR target gene and that transactivation by PPARs and HNF4alpha is mediated by two distinct response elements.
Animals, Chromatin/ultrastructure, DNA Primers, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Glycogen Synthase/genetics, Hepatocytes/enzymology, Hepatocytes/physiology, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/deficiency, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/genetics, Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA/genetics, RNA/isolation & purification, Rats, Transcription, Genetic
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