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Efficacy of garenoxacin in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus or viridans group streptococci.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
The activity of garenoxacin was investigated in rats with experimental endocarditis due to staphylococci and viridans group streptococci (VGS). The staphylococci tested comprised one ciprofloxacin-susceptible and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolate (isolate 1112), one ciprofloxacin-susceptible but methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate (isolate P8), and one ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant (grlA) of P8 (isolate P8-4). The VGS tested comprised one penicillin-susceptible isolate and one penicillin-resistant isolate (Streptococcus oralis 226 and Streptococcus mitis 531, respectively). To simulate the kinetics of drugs in humans, rats were infused intravenously with garenoxacin every 24 h (peak and trough levels in serum, 6.1 and 1.0 mg/liter, respectively; area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], 63.4 mg. h/liter) or levofloxacin every 12 h (peak and trough levels in serum, 7.3 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively; AUC, 55.6 mg. h/liter) for 3 or 5 days. Flucloxacillin, vancomycin, and ceftriaxone were used as control drugs. Garenoxacin, levofloxacin, flucloxacillin, and vancomycin sterilized >/=70% of the vegetations infected with both ciprofloxacin-susceptible staphylococcal isolates (P < 0.05 versus the results for the controls). Garenoxacin and vancomycin also sterilized 70% of the vegetations infected with ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA isolate P8-4, whereas treatment with levofloxacin failed against this organism (cure rate, 0%; P < 0.05 versus the results obtained with the comparator drugs). Garenoxacin did not select for resistant derivatives in vivo. In contrast, levofloxacin selected for resistant variants in four of six rats infected with MRSA isolate P8-4. Garenoxacin sterilized 90% of the vegetations infected with both penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant isolates of VGS. Levofloxacin sterilized only 22 and 40% of the vegetations infected with penicillin-susceptible S. oralis 226 and penicillin-resistant S. mitis 531, respectively. Ceftriaxone sterilized only 40% of those infected with penicillin-resistant S. mitis 531 (P < 0.05 versus the results obtained with garenoxacin). No quinolone-resistant VGS were detected. In all the experiments successful quinolone treatment was predicted by specific pharmacodynamic criteria (D. R. Andes and W. A. Craig, Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:47-50, 1998). The fact that the activity of garenoxacin was equal or superior to those of the standard comparators against staphylococci and VGS indicates that it is a potential alternative for the treatment of infections caused by such bacteria.
Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use, Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage, Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics, Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy, Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology, Floxacillin/therapeutic use, Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage, Fluoroquinolones/pharmacokinetics, Infusions, Intravenous, Methicillin Resistance, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Ofloxacin/therapeutic use, Penicillins/therapeutic use, Rats, Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy, Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology, Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy, Streptococcal Infections/microbiology, Vancomycin/therapeutic use, Viridans Streptococci/drug effects
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