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Functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in skin homeostasis.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Three isotypes (PPAR alpha, PPAR beta or delta, and PPAR gamma) with distinct tissue distributions and cellular functions have been found in vertebrates. All three PPAR isotypes are expressed in rodent and human skin. They were initially investigated for a possible function in the establishment of the permeability barrier in skin because of their known function in lipid metabolism in other cell types. In vitro studies using specific PPAR agonists and in vivo gene disruption approaches in mice indeed suggest an important contribution of PPAR alpha in the formation of the epidermal barrier and in sebocyte differentiation. The PPAR gamma isotype plays a role in stimulating sebocyte development and lipogenesis, but does not appear to contribute to epidermal tissue differentiation. The third isotype, PPAR beta, regulates the late stages of sebaceous cell differentiation, and is the most effective isotype in stimulating lipid production in these cells, both in rodents and in humans. In addition, PPAR beta activation has pro-differentiating effects in keratinocytes under normal and inflammatory conditions. Finally, preliminary studies also point to a potential role of PPAR in hair follicle growth and in melanocyte differentiation. By their diverse biological effects on cell proliferation and differentiation in the skin, PPAR agonists or antagonists may offer interesting opportunities for the treatment of various skin disorders characterized by inflammation, cell hyperproliferation, and aberrant differentiation.
Animals, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Homeostasis, Humans, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/metabolism, Skin/cytology, Skin/metabolism, Skin Diseases/metabolism, Skin Diseases/pathology
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