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Incrétines, secretion d'insuline et diabète
Médecine sciences : M/S
21 Spec No
Nutrient ingestion triggers a complex hormonal response aimed at stimulating glucose utilization in liver, muscle and adipose tissue to minimize the raise in blood glucose levels. Insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells plays a major role in this response. Although the beta cell secretary response is mainly controlled by blood glucose levels, gut hormones secreted in response to food intake have an important role in potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These gluco-incretin hormones are GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GIP (gluco-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide). Their action on pancreatic beta cells depends on binding to specific G-coupled receptors linked to activation of the adenylyl cyclase pathway. In addition to their effect on insulin secretion both hormones also stimulate insulin production at the transcriptional and translational level and positively regulate beta cell mass. Because the glucose-dependent insulinotropic action of GLP-1 is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients, this peptide is now developed as a novel therapeutic drug for this disease.
Animals, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glucagon, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, Humans, Insulin, Islets of Langerhans
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