Relationship Between the Development of the Spinal Canal and the Etiopathogenesis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis


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Relationship Between the Development of the Spinal Canal and the Etiopathogenesis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Tomonaga Y.
Schizas C.
Kulik G.
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
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INTRODUCTION: The presence of a pre-existing narrow spinal canal may have an important place in the ethiopathogenesis of lumbar spinal stenosis. By consequence the study of the development of the spinal canal is crucial. The first goal of this work is to do a comprehensive literature search and to give an essential view on the development of spinal canal and its depending factors studied until now. The second goal is to give some considerations and hypothesize new leads for clinically useful researches.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliographical research was executed using different search engines: PubMed, Google Schoolar ©, Ovid ® and Web Of Science ©. Free sources and avaible from the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) were used. At the end of the bibliographic researches 114 references were found, 85 were free access and just 41 were cited in this work. Most of the found references are in English or in French.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The spinal canal is principally limited by the vertebrae which have a mesodermal origin. The nervous (ectodermal) tissue significantly influences the growth of the canal. The most important structure participating in the spinal canal growth is the neurocentral synchondrosis in almost the entire vertebral column. The fusion of the half posterior arches seems to have less importance for the canal size. The growth is not homogeneous but, depends on the vertebral level. Timing, rate and growth potentials differ by regions. Especially in the case of the lumbar segment, there is a craniocaudal tendency which entails a greater post-natal catch-up growth for distal vertebrae. Trefoil-shape of the L5 canal is the consequence of a sagittal growth deficiency. The spinal canal shares some developmental characteristics with different structures and systems, especially with the central nervous system. It may be the consequence of the embryological origin. It is supposed that not all the related structures would be affected by a growth impairment because of the different catch-up potentials. Studies found that narrower spinal canals might be related with cardiovascular and gastrointestinal symptoms, lower thymic function, bone mineral content, dental hypoplasia and Harris' lines. Anthropometric correlations found at birth disappear during the pediatric age. All factors which can affect bone and nervous growth might be relevant. Genetic predispositions are the only factors that can never be changed but the real impact is to ascertain. During the antenatal period, all the elements determining a good supply of blood and oxygen may influence the vertebral canal development, for example smoking during pregnancy. Diet is a crucial factor having an impact on both antenatal and postnatal growth. Proteins intake is the only proved dietetic relationship found in the bibliographic research of this work. The mechanical effects due to locomotion changes are unknown. Socioeconomic situation has an impact on several influencing factors and it is difficult to study it owing to numerous bias.
CONCLUSIONS: A correct growth of spinal canal is evidently relevant to prevent not-degenerative stenotic conditions. But a "congenital" narrower canal may aggravate degenerative stenosis. This concerns specific groups of patient. If the size of the canal is highly involved in the pathogenesis of common back pains, a hypothetical measure to prevent developmental impairments could have a not- negligible impact on the society. It would be interesting to study more about dietetic necessities for a good spinal canal development. Understanding the relationship between nervous tissues and vertebra it might be useful in identifying what is needed for the ideal development. Genetic importance and the post-natal influences of upright standing on the canal growth remain unsolved questions. All these tracks may have a double purpose: knowing if it is possible to decrease the incidence of narrower spinal canal and consequently finding possible preventive measures. The development of vertebral canal is a complex subject which ranges over a wide variety of fields. The knowledge of this subject is an indispensable tool to understand and hypothesize the influencing factors that might lead to stenotic conditions. Unfortunately, a lack of information makes difficult to have a complete and satisfactory interdisciplinary vision.
Spinal Canal, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, Congenital, Growth and development, Etiology
Création de la notice
10/09/2013 11:03
Dernière modification de la notice
03/03/2018 18:25
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