Article: article from journal or magazin.
Retrovirus-induced target cell activation in the early phases of infection: the mouse mammary tumor virus model.
Journal of Virology
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infects B lymphocytes and expresses a superantigen on the cell surface after integration of its reverse-transcribed genome. Superantigen-dependent B- and T-cell activation becomes detectable 2 to 3 days after infection. We show here that before this event, B cells undergo a polyclonal activation which does not involve massive proliferation. This first phase of B-cell activation is T cell independent. Moreover, during the first phase of activation, when only a small fraction of B cells is infected by MMTV(SW), viral DNA is detected only in activated B cells. Such a B-cell activation is also seen after injection of murine leukemia virus but not after injection of vaccinia virus, despite the very similar kinetics and intensity of the immune response. Since retroviruses require activated target cells to induce efficient infection, these data suggest that the early polyclonal retrovirus-induced target cell activation might play an important role in the establishment of retroviral infections.
Animals, B-Lymphocytes/immunology, B-Lymphocytes/virology, DNA Replication, DNA, Viral/analysis, DNA, Viral/biosynthesis, Female, Genome, Viral, Kinetics, Lymph Nodes/immunology, Lymph Nodes/virology, Lymphocyte Activation, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/virology, Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse/genetics, Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse/immunology, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred Strains, Mice, Nude, Milk/virology, Retroviridae Infections/immunology, T-Lymphocytes/immunology, T-Lymphocytes/virology, Time Factors, Tumor Virus Infections/immunology, Virus Integration, Virus Replication
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