Article: article from journal or magazin.
Refractory period phenomenon in the induction of tissue factor expression on endothelial cells
Journal Article --- Old month value: Oct 15
Tissue factor (TF) is the first factor of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. Normally, TF is not expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. However, expression of TF can be induced in these cells in response to stimulation by diverse inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). We have studied the effect of these mediators on the kinetics of the induction of TF-related procoagulant activity (PCA) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PCA is transiently induced on HUVECs, attaining a peak some 4 to 8 hours after addition of inflammatory agents, with maximal accumulation of TF messenger RNA (mRNA) occurring 3 to 5 hours earlier. Because the expression of PCA by treated HUVECs returns to basal levels by 20 to 30 hours, we examined the response of these cells to a second inflammatory stimulus. Continuous incubation of cells with a single inflammatory agent for 24 to 48 hours induces a hyporesponsive state with respect to the reinduction of TF expression by the same agent (14% of the initial stimulation for IL-1 beta, 39% for TNF-alpha 30% for LPS, and 7% for PMA). Such a diminution in PCA was also observed in the levels of TF mRNA. By contrast, pretreatment of HUVECs with one agent did not dramatically affect the reinduction of TF by any of the three other factors. We subsequently focused our attention on the induction of the autologous refractory period by IL-1 beta. De novo protein synthesis was not required during the preincubation of ECs for hyporesponsiveness to be observed. The establishment of the refractory state did not depend on the downmodulation of IL-1 beta receptor affinity or expression. Moreover, pretreatment of HUVECs with IL-1 beta increased prostacyclin (PGI2) production in response to a second stimulation by IL-1 beta, although such cells were unable to reexpress TF under the same conditions. This result suggests that distinct secondary messenger pathways are involved in TF induction and PGI2 synthesis by IL-1 beta in HUVECs.
Endothelium, Vascular/*cytology Humans Interleukin-1/pharmacology RNA/analysis Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology Thromboplastin/*genetics Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
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