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High prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors in first-degree relatives of individuals with familial premature coronary artery disease--the GENECARD project.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and smoking are highly prevalent among patients with familial premature coronary artery disease (FP-CAD). Whether these risk factors equally affect other family members remains unknown. METHODS: We examined 222 FP-CAD patients, 158 unaffected sibs, 197 offspring and 94 spouses in 108 FP-CAD families (> or = 2 sibs having survived CAD diagnosed before age 51 (M)/56 (F)), and compared them to population controls. RESULTS: Unaffected sibs had a higher prevalence of hypertension (49% versus 24%, p<0.001), hypercholesterolemia (47% versus 34%, p=0.002), abdominal obesity (35% versus 24%, p=0.006) and smoking (39% versus 24%, p=0.001) than population controls. Offspring had a higher prevalence of hypertension (females), hypercholesterolemia and abdominal obesity than population controls. No difference was observed between spouses and controls. Compared to unaffected sibs, FP-CAD affected sibs had a similar risk factor profile, except for smoking, which was more prevalent (76% versus 39%, p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension, obesity and hypercholesterolemia are highly prevalent among first-degree relatives, but not spouses, of patients with FP-CAD. These persons deserve special medical attention due to their familial/genetic susceptibility to atherogenic metabolic abnormalities. In these families, smoking may be the trigger for FP-CAD.
Abdominal Fat, Adult, Adult Children, Age of Onset, Body Mass Index, Coronary Artery Disease, Family, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Siblings, Smoking, Spouses
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