Article: article from journal or magazin.
PPARgamma but not PPARalpha ligands are potent repressors of major histocompatibility complex class II induction in atheroma-associated cells.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are essential in glucose and lipid metabolism and are implicated in metabolic disorders predisposing to atherosclerosis, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. Conversely, antidiabetic glitazones and hypolipidemic fibrate drugs, known as PPARgamma and PPARalpha ligands, respectively, reduce the process of atherosclerotic lesion formation, which involves chronic immunoinflammatory processes. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules, expressed on the surface of specialized cells, are directly involved in the activation of T lymphocytes and in the control of the immune response. Interestingly, expression of MHC-II has recently been observed in atherosclerotic plaques, and it can be induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in vascular cells. To explore a possible role for PPAR ligands in the regulation of the immune response, we investigated whether PPAR activation affects MHC-II expression in atheroma-associated cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that PPARgamma but not PPARalpha ligands act as inhibitors of IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II expression and thus as repressors of MHC-II-mediated T-cell activation. All different types of PPARgamma ligands tested inhibit MHC-II. This effect of PPARgamma ligands is due to a specific inhibition of promoter IV of CIITA and does not concern constitutive expression of MHC-II. Thus, the beneficial effects of antidiabetic PPARgamma activators on atherosclerotic plaque development may be partly explained by their repression of MHC-II expression and subsequent inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation.
Arteriosclerosis/immunology, Arteriosclerosis/metabolism, Cells, Cultured, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Endothelium, Vascular/cytology, Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism, Flow Cytometry, Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects, Gene Expression Regulation/physiology, Genes, Reporter, Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics, Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology, Interferon-gamma/pharmacology, Ligands, Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects, Lymphocyte Activation/immunology, Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed, Monocytes/cytology, Monocytes/drug effects, Prostaglandin D2/analogs & derivatives, Prostaglandin D2/pharmacology, RNA, Messenger/metabolism, Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics, Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism, T-Lymphocytes/drug effects, T-Lymphocytes/immunology, Transcription Factors/genetics, Transcription Factors/metabolism
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